Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 2

Animal diseases

Date: 27th of February- 17th of March 2023

Week: 8-10

Subject: Agricultural Science

Topic: Animal Diseases

Duration:45 minutes

Teaching Aid: A chart

Reference Book: WABP Junior secondary Agriculture for Nigerian School 1 by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Behavioural Objectives: By the end of this topic, students should be able to

  1. Define disease
  2. Discuss the animal diseases caused by pathogens


Step 1: Teacher revises last topic

Step 2: Teacher introduces and explains new topic

Step 3: Teacher writes note on the board

Step 4: Teacher evaluates students

Step 5: Teacher marks students' notes and give assignment

Previous knowledge: Students have been taught care of livestock



Meaning of Diseases

A disease is nay abnormality in health. It is a deviation from the normal functioning of any part of the animal body. Disease may manifest in form of infection, irritation or unfavourable condition. Hence, a diseased animal cannot perform the normal body processes. Disease results in ill health which may result in death.

A sick or diseased animal will show some or all the following signs.

  1. Loss of appetite;
  2. High temperature;
  3. Persistent coughing;
  4. Sluggishness;
  5. Watery, smelling or blood stained feaces;
  6. Discharge from the eyes, mouth, nostril or anus;
  7. Rough skin
  8. Dropping of tail or wings in birds;
  9. Emaciation;
  10. Death.

Disease could be categorized into two. These are:-

  1. Infectious Disease:- Infectious disease are the disease which can affect an animal without the animal coming in contact with the infected animal or infected materials. They are transmitted through the air, water, dust or other agents. Examples of contagious diseases are anthrax, fowl typhoid, conccidiosis and new castle disease
  2. Contagious Disease:- These disease can only affect an animal by physical contact with an infected animal. Examples of contagious diseases are foot and mouth disease, mastitis and contagious bovine abortion.

Animals can contact disease through the following:

  1. Air.
  2. Contaminated feed and water.
  3. Dropping or feaces or infected animals
  4. Infected feeding materials e.g. water troughs, feed troughs and others.
  5. Insect vectors.

Common Disease of Farm Animals

The common disease of farm animals include the following

  1. Cattle
  2. Foot and mouth disease
  3. Rinder pest
  4. Anthrax
  5. Brucellosis or contagious bovine abortion
  6. Mastitis
  7. Tuberculosis
  8. Trypanosomiasis
  9. Heart water disease
  10. Babesiosis or Tick-borne fever
  11. Kirchi (Cowpox or streptothricosis)

Sheep and goats

  1. Blue tongue
  2. Kata (stomatitis or pseudorinderpest)
  3. Contagious ethyma or dermatitis
  4. Foot rot

Pigs (swine)

  1. Swine fever
  2. Swine erysipelas (Diamond skin disease)
  3. Contagious abortion of swine
  4. Transmissible gastoententis (TGE)
  5. Roundworm infection (Nemathelminthes)


  1. Sore hock
  2. Mange
  3. Bloat
  4. Coccidiosis


  1. New castle disease
  2. Fowl pox
  3. Fowl typhoid
  4. Coccidiosis
  5. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD)


Table showing common disease of farm animal

Name of disease

Causal organism (agent)

Animal affected


Mode of transmission

Body area affected



Prevention on and control measures

Foot and mouth



i.  High fever

ii.  Loss of appetite

iii.  Blisters or sores on the muzzle (lips), tongue, cheek, udder and feet

iv.  Weakness and lameness

v.  Excessive salivation and foaming

By contact with infected animals, contaminated feed.


Serious loss of animals (death)

No effective treatment

i.     Vaccination to prevent the disease

ii.     Isolation of diseased animals

iii.     Slaughter and bury infected animals

Rinderpest or cattle plague


Cattle can also affect sheep, goat and pigs

  i.  High fever (rise in temperature

ii.  Loss of appetite

iii.  Blood stained diarrhea

iv.  Difficulty in breathing

v.  Grinding

  i.  Eating contaminated food.

ii.  Contact with infected animals

Entire body

High rate of animals

No treatment

i.  Vaccination to prevent the disease

ii.  Isolation of infected animals

iii.  Quarantine

iv.  Kill and bury diseased animals




Name of disease

Causal organism (agent)

Animal affected


Mode of transmission

Body area affected



Prevention on and control measures



Ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat)

i.     High fever

ii.     Convulsion

iii.     Increased breathing rate

iv.     Black or blood stained discharge from mouth, eyes, nostrils etc.

v.     Sudden death

vi.     Welling out of neck, abdomen after death

Contact with infected animals and their products

Whole body

Sudden death of animals (sometimes without symptoms

If symptoms are noticed early, treat with antibiotics.

i.  Vaccination

ii.     Isolation and slaughter of diseased animals should be burnt and buried.


Brucellosis (contagious bovide abortion


Cattle pigs

  i.   Inflammation of uterus and mammary glands

ii.  Abortion or pregnancy at 5th – 7th month as still birth

iii.  Retention of after birth

i.     Direct contact with:

-  Infected after birth

-  Foetal fluid or aborted fetuses

-  Coition with infected bull.

-  Contaminated feed or pasture

Foetus (pregnancy)

i.  Loss of foetus

ii.  Low rate of production

iii.  It is zoonotic (i.e. it can affect human beings).

No effective treatment

i.   Vaccination

ii.  Report any occurrent to veterinary doctor

Trypano somiasis (nagana)

Protozoa (trypanosoms)


i.     Severe anaemia

ii.   Intermittent fever

iii.   General weakness

iv.   Hairs on tail often pull-out

v.   Staggering

vi.   Death

By tse-tse fly

The brain

i.  Drop in the level of production

ii.  Death of animals

Use drugs such as Babesin, Bayer 2005 etc.

i.     Use insecticide to kill vectors (tse-tse fly)

ii.   Good sanitation such as cleaning and burning of bush.


Nutritional disorder

Ruminants (cattle, goat, sheep and rabbit)

  i.  Diarrhea

ii.     Prof use salivation

iii.     Swollen stomach

iv.     Vomiting

v.     Difficulty in breath

vi.     Death

Feeding on immature pasture


Swollen stomach and digestive tract

i.  Use defoaming agents such as groundnut

ii.  Pass a large tube into stomach to remove obstacle causing obstruct

i.     Do not graze animals on immature pasture

ii.     Feed high protein supplements or feeds.



Name of disease

Causal organism (agent)

Animal affected


Mode of transmission

Body area affected



Prevention on and control measures



Ruminants may affect pigs

i.         Swollen under

ii.     High temperature

iii.     Discharge of pus from the udder

iv.     Yellowish smelling milk

Through injury especially on the teat


Drop in milk yield

Injection of antibiotics

Massaging the mammary gland after injection

i.     Good sanitation

ii.     Clean milking practice to avoided injury

iii.     Keeping the udder dry


Krchi (cowpox or streptothricosis


Ruminatns and igs

i.     High lesion

ii.  Irritation

iii.  Loss of hair

iv.  Swollen udder

-  Direct contact with infected animals


i.       Poor production of hair and milk

Treatment of wounds with tetracy cline capsules

i.     Regular bathing

ii.  Disinfect and feeding and milking equipment

iii.  Vaccination on slaughter and bury infected animals

Swine fever



i.     High temperature

ii.   Lost of appetite

iii.   Diarrohoea

iv.   Bluish discoloration at the ears, legs and snouth

Contact with infected pig

Whole body

Death of animals

No successful treatment, no available vaccine


New castle disease (fowl plague)



  i.   Sudden death without symptoms

ii.   Breathing difficulty

iii.   Loss of weight

iv.   Watery greenish diarrhea

v.   Diarrhea

vi.   Circling movement

i.        Air borne spread

ii.   Contaminated vaccine and equipement

iii.   Infected birds

i.     Nervous system

ii.      Respiratory tract

Loss of poultry birds

No effective treatment

i.     Quarantine

ii.     Vaccination

iii.     Sanitation





Name of disease

Causal organism (agent)

Animal affected


Mode of transmission

Body area affected



Prevention on and control measures

Fowl pox



i.   Blisters on comble, wattle and feed

ii.     Loss of weight

iii.     Reduced egg production

Bitting insects


Light weight poultry birds

Low e.g. production

Use of antibiotics

iv.     Vaccination on and sanitation

v.     Culling of diseased birds




Poultry, rabbits

i.     Blood stained dropping or feaces

ii.     Loss of weight

iii.     Diarrhoea

iv.     Ruffle feathers

Feeding of infected feed, water and infected feaces

Digest ice tract

i.      Reduced egg production

ii.  Death of animal

Use of sulphur drugs

i.   Good sanitation

ii.  Use of coccidiotic tablets

iii.  Disinfect poultry houses before stocking

Chronic respiratory disorder (CRD)

Myuco plasma (virus like microbe)



    i.   Nasal discharge

ii.   Swollen face

iii.   Breathing difficultry

iv.   Loss of weight

Breathing in of virus from contaminated feed, water or urine and

Air sac

iii.  Loss of birds

Use of antibiotics

i.      Sanitation

ii.     Good ventilation

iii.     Avoid use of dust litter




Loss o hair


iii.      Skin


Dusting with chemical

i.     Dust with powder

ii.     Good sanitation



Evaluation: Differentiate between disease pathogens and disease vectors

Assignment: Mention seven (7) ways of preventing farm animal diseases

© Lesson Notes All Rights Reserved 2023