Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 2


Date: 30th of January – 3rd of February 2023

Class: JSS 2

Term: 2nd Term

Week: 4

Subject: Agricultural Science

Topic: Soil

Duration:45 minutes

Teaching Aid: A chart

Reference Book: WABP Junior secondary Agriculture for Nigerian School 1 by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Behavioural Objective: By the end of this topic, students should be able to

  1. Define Soil
  2. Mention the types of soil and their properties


Step 1: Teacher revises last topic

Step 2: Teacher introduces and explains new topic

Step 3: Teacher writes note on the board

Step 4: Teacher evaluates students

Step 5: Teacher marks students' notes and give assignment


Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth’s crust in which plants have their roots and from which they obtain nutrients.

Types of soil

There are three main types of soil. They are:

  1. Sandy soil
  2. Clay soil
  3. Loamy soil

Sandy Soil: A soil is said to be sandy of the proportion of sand particles in a soil sample is very high

Properties Of sandy soil include

  • It allows easy movement of water
  • It is grey in colour
  • It is not sticky when wet
  • It is low in plant nutrient

Clay Soil: soil is said to be clayey if the proportion of clay in a sample of the soil is very high

Properties of clay soil include

  • It retains plenty of water
  • It is a heavy soil therefore, it’s difficult to cultivate
  • It is sticky when wet
  • It is dark brown in colour
  • It contains plant nutrient

Loamy Soil: it is the mixture of sandy and claysoil with adequate humus

Properties of Loamy soil include:

  • It does not support erosion
  • It is black in colour
  • It is high in plant nutrient
  • It can easily be worked on



This is the ability of soil to sustain plant growth and help crop yield. The fertility of a soil determines the performance of a plant and its yield.

A soil is said to be fertile if it contains the necessary nutrient required by plant to grow and reproduce. These nutrients are grouped into two:

  1. Micro Nutrients
  2. Macro Nutrients

Micro Nutrients: these are nutrients required by plants in small quantities. Examples are Zinc,copper,boron,iron, chlorine, manganese and molybdenum

Macro Nutrients: these are nutrients required by plants in large quantities. Examples are calcium, sulphur, potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium ..


Ways of maintaining soil fertility

  • Crop Rotation
  • Organic manuring
  • Bush fallowing
  • Cover cropping
  • Inorganic manuring(fertilizers)

Assignment: In a tabular form, give five differences between clay and sandy soil.

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