Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 2








  1. Division of Powers: There is a constitutional division of powers between the federal, state and local government.
  2. Supremacy of the Constitution: In any federation the highest or supreme power lies with the constitution.
  3. Written and Rigid Constitution: To avoid the problem of manipulation and marginalization of a given unit, the federal constitution is always written and rigid.
  4. Existence of Bi-Cameral Legislature: The law making body at the federal level in a federal system must be bi-cameral (i.e two) . In Nigeria they are the House of Senate and House of Representatives.
  5. Existence of the Supreme Court:  There must exist a supreme court which is the highest court of justice in the country.  In Nigeria, the decision or ruling of the supreme court is the final in any legal matter.



State three characteristics of a federation. 


Relationship Between Federal, State and Local Governments.

  1. Federal Government:  Is the central government. It is in charge of defense, police, army, foreign affairs, currency matters etc.. It supervises the states and local governments.
  2. State Government : the state governors are the  heads of state governments.  A State Governor oversees the State Council  of Chiefs, State Civil  Service Commission etc.  The State Executive Council is headed by the governor and is responsible for smooth running of the state.
  3. Local Government: is the third tier or third level of government in the country.  It is headed by the local government chairman.  The laws made by the local government are called bye-laws.



State three areas of relationships among the tiers of government.


Areas of differences between the federal, state and local government .

These are the major differences in their functions:

  1. The Federal Government initiates  and implements i.e carries out policies for the whole country. However, the states and local government have their own areas of authority.
  2. The federal government has the power to control the states and local government but the states and local governments cannot control the federal government.
  3. The federal, states and local governments receive money from the federation account and this money is called allocation.
  4. The Federal Executive Council is headed by the President.  It is made up of the past heads of states, state governor and ministers.
  5. The Federal Government has two legislative houses – the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  6. The States and local government have uni-cameral legislature each (i.e only one law-making house or office.)



  1. State three major differences among the tiers of government.
  2. Mention three characteristics of a federation.
  3. Mention three ways to nurture your talents.
  4. List three processes of discovering your talents.



Fundamentals of  Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemi pgs 37-40.



  1. _________ commands the greatest power in Nigeria
  2. President B. Senate        C. Army        D. Constitution
  3. Nigeria operates a federal, written and rigid constitution.
  4. Yes     B. No            C. Yes and No        D. I don’t know
  5. The Federal Executive Council, the highest policy making council in Nigeria, is headed by ______. A. Vice President B. Senate President    C. President    D. All Nigerians
  6. ________is the highest court in Nigeria.
  7. Magistrate Court B. High Court        C. Supreme Court    D. District Court
  8. Bye-laws are made by ______.
  9. lawyers     B. president        C. governors        D. local government



  1. State four features or attributes of a federation.
  2. Write a short note on the supreme court.

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