Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 2









  • Meaning of a federation
  • Examples of countries practicing federal system of government.
  • Meaning of exclusive, residual and concurrent lists.
  • The need for Federalism.


Meaning of Federation:  Federation is a system of government in which there is a constitutional division of powers between the central government and other component units forming the union or federation that is division of powers between the federal government and the states within the country.  It is also called a federal system of government or a federation.



What is federation? 


Examples of Countries Practicing Federal System of Government. 

They include:

  1. Australia 2. Nigeria 3. United States of America 4. Switzerland 5. Canada etc


Meaning of Exclusive Residual List

Exclusive List:  This is a list of items or topics or activities on which only the federal government has powers to make laws on.  On anything on the exclusive list, no state or local government has any say.

The items include:

  1. the Army 
  2. Immigration
  3. Emigration
  4. Foreign Affairs
  5. Currency Matters
  6. Internal Affairs 
  7. Defense



Mention four items in the Exclusive List.


Residual List:  This is a list of all activities or topics or items which only the state government has powers to make laws on.  They include 

  1. Chieftancy matters     2.  Markets etc


Concurrent List: This is a list of items or topics or activities, areas in which both the state and federal government can participate .  Items on this list include:

  1. Health     ii. Education        iii.  Agriculture     iv.  Road


Need for Federation

There are reasons Nigeria has need for a federation or federal system of government. These are 

  1. National Integration: A federal government supervising the federating units (i.e States) will help us in national integration , that is, national unity.
  2. Even Development : The federal system of government will enable the states and local governments to develop evenly, that is side by side with others. 
  3. Geographical Sizes: Given the geographically large Nigeria, it is the federal system of government that will make the administration of the federal, states and local government easy.
  4. Economic Factor or Reason:  The need to pool our resources together to form a stronger financial body or a richer country.
  5. Minorities Interest: It is the federal system that ensures that the minority tribes or ethnic groups are not over-looked or ignored in the development of the nation.



  1. Mention three need for a federal system of government.
  2. State three items in the Concurrent List.
  3. What is self-reliance?
  4. Mention three attributes of self-reliance.



Fundamentals of   Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemi pgs 33-35.



  1. _________ is the list containing what the federal government only can deal with
  2. Concurrent list B. Residual list    C. Exclusive list    D. all of the above
  3. This is not an example of a country that runs a federal system of government.
  4. Nigeria     B. America        C. Australian        D. Britain
  5. Concurrent list is for states and federal government.
  6. Yes         B. No            C. Yes and No        D. I don’t think so 
  7. Residual list contain matters of issues handled only by the state government.
  8. No            B. Yes            C. Yes and NO    D. None of the above 
  9. Nigeria needs a federal system of government____. 
  10. because of North and South B. because of Christianity and Islam C. because of even development of the country. D.  because of literate and illiterate citizens



  1. Explain concurrent list and state four activities on the list .
  2. What do you mean by Residual list and Exclusive list.

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