FRACTIONS, RATIOS, DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES

**SUBJECT: MATHEMATICS**

**CLASS:� JSS 2**

**DATE:**

**TERM: 1st TERM**

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WEEK FOUR

**TOPIC: FRACTIONS, RATIOS, DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES**

- Fractions and Percentages�
- Proportion
- Ratio
- Rate

**Fractions and percentages�**

A fraction can be converted to decimal by dividing the numerator by its denominator. It can be changed to percentage by simply multiplying by 100.

**Example 5.1**

- Change 3/8 into a decimal and percentage
- Convert 0.145 to percentage

**Solution**

1)��� 3/8 = 0.375 in decimal

��� 3/8 x 100% = 37.5%

2)��� 0.145x100=14.5%

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**Example 5.2**

To change percentage to decimal fraction, simply divide by 100 and then convert to decimal fraction. E.g. convert 92% to decimal

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**Solution**

92

100���

��� 920

��� 900

200

��� 200��� =0.92

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**Example 5.3**

- Change the following to percentages

(a) 0.125��� (b) 0.002

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**Solution�**

**(a**) 0.125x100% = 12.5%

**(b)** 0.002 = 0.002x100% = 0.2%

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- Change the following to decimal fractions

(A) 45 %��� ( b) 8/3%

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**Solution**

- 45/100=0.45
- 8/3= 8/3 �100/1= 8/3 x 1/100 = 8/300 = 4/150 = 2/75

0.02666

���

75��� 200

��� 150

����500

��� � � 450

����������������500

����������������450

����500

**=0.0267**

**Class work**

- Change the following to percentage

(a) 0.264 (b) 0.875

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- � Change the following to decimal fractions

(A) 60% (b) 52/3%

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**APPLICATION OF DECIMAL FRACTIONS AND PERCENTAGES**

Consider the following examples.

- Find 15% of 2.8kg�
- Express 3.3 mass a percentage of 7.5�
- Find 331/3 % of8.16litres�

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**Solution**

- 15/100 of 2.8kg

���15/100 x 2.8 x 1000g

���15/100 x 2800

=420g

=420/1000

=0.420kg

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**b**. 3.3/7.5 x 100/1

�����33/75 x 100/1

�����11x4 = 44%

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**c**. 331/3% of 8.16litres

100/3 of 8.16litres

100/3 of 8.16litres

100/3 x 8.16litres

100/3 x 8.16 x 1000 (1litre=1000cm3)

100/3 x 8160

100/3 �100/1 x 8160

100/3 x 1/100 x 8160

=2700/1000= **2.720litres**

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**Class work�**

- Express1.5 as a percentage of 2.5 m
- Find 662/3 % of2.4m

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**READING ASSIGNMENT�**

New General Mathematics, UBE Edition, chapter 1 Pages 78-79

Essential Mathematics by A J S Oluwasanmi, Chapter 1 pages 61-64

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**Proportion**

Proportion can be solved either by unitary method or inverse method. When solving by unitary method, always�

- write in sentence the quantity to be found at the end.�
- decide whether the problem is either an example of direct or inverse method�
- find the rate for one unit before answering the problem.�

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**Examples**

- A worker gets N 900 for 10 days of work, find the amount for (a) 3 days (b) 24 days (c) x days�

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**Solution�**

For 1 day� = N 900

1 day = 900/10 = N90

- For 3 days =3 x 90 = 270
- For 24 days� = 24x90 = N 2,160
- For x days =X x 90 = N 90 x

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**Inverse Proportion**

Example

- Seven workers dig a piece of ground in 10 days. How long will five workers take?�

**Solution�**

For 7 workers =10 days

For 1 worker =7x10=70 days

For 5 workers=70/5 =14 days

- 5 people took 8 days to plant 1,200 trees, How long will it take 10 people to plant the same number of trees

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**Solution**

For 5 people =8 days

For 1 person =8x5=40 days

For 10 people =40/10 =4 days

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**Class Work**

- A woman is paid N 750 for 5 days, Find her pay for (a) 1 day (b) 22 days�
- A piece of land has enough grass to feed 15 cows for x days. How long will it last (a) 1 cow (b) y cows�
- A bag of rice feeds 15 students for 7 days .How long would the same bag feed 10 students�

Note on direct proportion: this is an example of direct proportion .The less time worked (3 days) the less money paid (#270) the more time worked (24 days) the more money paid (N N 2,160)

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**Ratio**

Ratio behaves the same way as fraction. Ratios are often used when sharing quantities..

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**Example**

600/800=600/800=3/4

300-400=600-800=1200-1600=3=4

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**Example**

- Express the ratio of 96 c: 120c as simple as possible

Solution 96c: 120c=96/120=4/5=4.5

- Fill in the gap in the ratio of 2:7=28�

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**Solution** � � � let the gap be X

2/7 = X/28

7X =2 x 28

X=2 x 28/7

X=2 x 4

X = 8

- Two students shared 36 mangoes in the ratio 2:3 How many mangoes does each student get?�

**Solution**

Total ratio =2+3=5

First share=2/5x35/1=21 mangoes

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**Rate**

Rate is the change in one quantity to the other. Examples are 45km/hr, a km, 1 litre etc

Worked examples

- A car goes 160 km in 2 hrs what is the rate in km/hr?�

**Solution**

In 2 hrs the car travels 160 km�

In 1 hr the car travels 160/2=80km

Therefore the rate of the car is 80km/hr

- A car uses 10 litres of petrol to travel 74 km. Express its petrol consumption as a rate in km per litre.�

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**Solution**

10 litres =74 km

1 litres = 74/10 km

=7.4 km

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**Class work**

- A car factory made 375 cars in 5 days, Find its rate in cars per day.�
- A car travels 126 km in 11/2 hrs. Find the rate in km per hr.�

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**READING ASSIGNMENT�**

New General Mathematics, UBE Edition, Chapter 1, pages 80-85

Essential Mathematics by A J S Oluwasanmi, Chapter 1, pages 69-72

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**WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT**

- 5 men build in 10 days, how long would it take 25 men?�

������������(a) 3 days (b) 2 days (c) 5 days (d) 10 days

- A girl buys 7 pens for N 210. How would ten pens cost? (a)#300(b)#30(c)#3(d)#200�
- Fill in the gap in m: a =16:24 (a) 10 (b) 12 (c) 4 (d) 6�
- Express 90km /hr: 120km /hr as simple as possible (a) 4:3 (b) 3:4 (c) 2:3 (d) 3:2�
- A factory makes N 2000 pencils in 10 days, Find its production rate of pencils per day� (a) N 20 per day (b) N 100 per day(c) N 50 per day (d) N 200 per day�

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**THEORY�**

- Find 50% of 3.5m�
- A bag of corn can feed 100 chicks for 12 days. How long would the same bag feed 80��

���chickens?

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