Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 2










Communication is the achievement of a common understanding between two or more people - ie: where both attribute the same meaning to the information that is exchanged. 


Communication is about more than just exchanging information. It's about understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information.


Informating- is the dissemination of information, irrespective of the meaning that may be attached to it by the recipient.



  1. Active listening skills
  2.   Establish eye contact with the other person.
  3.   Listen to the person without interruption.
  1. Listen to the person without thinking of what you will say next.
  2. Let the speaker know you are listening through body language e.g. nodding.
  3. Clarify what has been said to make sure you understand correctly.
  1. Boldness:  Avoid being shy or soft spoken.
  2. Knowledge: Have relevant facts on issues to be discussed.
  3. Express feelings honestly and clearly without putting the other person down 
  4. Paraphrase what the speaker is saying to ensure understanding.
  5. Use ‘I’ statement, so that you can express how you feel.


Effective communication therefore involves the following iterative process:

- Informate

- Get feedback

- Check the feedback vs your intended meaning.

If they agree, then you have communicated and you can stop the process here

If they contradict (or if there is still potential for misunderstanding) re-informate, using different words.


4 key skills to improve communication

  • Become an engaged listener
  • Pay attention to nonverbal signals
  • Keep stress in check
  • Assert yourself


  1. Mention three communication techniques
  2. List four skills to improve communication 



Communication -- Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence

Young adolescents often aren't great communicators, particularly with their parents and other adults who love them. Emily Hutchison, a middle school teacher from Texas notes that young teens "often feel they can talk with anyone better than their parents–even wonderful parents." "They tend to be private," explains Patricia Lemons, a middle school teacher in New Mexico. "They don't necessarily want to tell you what they did at school today."


But it's not impossible to improve communication when your child reaches early adolescence. Here are some tips:


Realize that no recipe exists for successful communication. What works for getting one child to talk about what's important doesn't always work with another one. 


Listen: To listen means to avoid interrupting and it means to pay close attention. This is best done in a quiet place with no distractions. Often just talking with your child about a problem or an issue helps to clarify things. Sometimes the less you offer advice, the more your young teen may ask you for it. Listening can also be the best way to uncover a more serious problem that requires your attention.


Create opportunities to talk: To communicate with your child you need to make yourself available. Young adolescents resist "scheduled" talks; they don't open up when you tell them to, but when they want to. Some teens like to talk when they first get home from school. Others may like to talk at the dinner table or at bedtime.. Many of the best conversations grow out of shared activities. "Parents try to grab odd moments and have this deep communication with their child”.


Talk over differences: Communication breaks down for some parents, because they find it hard to manage differences with their child. It's often easiest to limit these differences when you have put in place clear expectations. If your 13-year-old daughter knows she's to be home by 9:30 p.m.—and if she knows the consequences for not meeting this curfew—the likelihood that she will be home on time increases. When differences arise, telling your child your concerns firmly but calmly can prevent differences from becoming battles.


Avoid over reacting: Responding too strongly can lead to yelling and screaming and it can shut down conversation. "Try to keep anxiety and emotions out of the conversation—then kids will open up,". Instead of getting riled up, "It's better to ask, 'What do you think about what you did? Let's talk about this.



  1. Explain the role of parents in pubertal communication
  2. What do you understand by the term Create opportunities to talk?


Here are topics that generally interest young adolescents:

School: If you ask your child, "What did you do in school today?" she most likely will answer, "Nothing." Of course, you know that isn't true.. With this information, you then can ask your child about specific classes or activities, which is more likely to start a conversation.

Hobbies and personal interests: If your child loves sports, talk about his favorite team or event or watch the World Series or the Olympics with him. Most young adolescents are interested in music.. Parents ought to at least know the names of popular singers." It's important, however, to tell your child when you believe that the music he is listening to is inappropriate—and to explain why. Your silence can be misconstrued as approval.


Emotions: As was pointed out earlier, young adolescents worry about a lot of different things. They worry about: their friends, being popular, sexuality, being overweight or scrawny, tomorrow's math test, grades, getting into college, being abandoned and the future of the world. The list goes on. Sometimes it's hard to know if a problem seems big to your child. Figuring out the size and importance of the problem helps her decide how to address it.


Family: Young adolescents like to talk about and be involved in plans for the whole family, such as vacations, as well as things that affect them individually, such as curfews or allowances. If you need back surgery, your child will want to know ahead of time. She may also want to learn more about the operation. Being a part of conversations about such topics can contribute to your child's feelings of belonging and security.

Sensitive subjects: Families should handle sensitive subjects in a way that is consistent with their values. Remember, though, that avoiding such subjects won't make them go away. If you avoid talking with your child about sensitive subjects, he may turn to the media or his friends for information. This increases the chances that what he hears will be out of line with your values or that the information will be wrong.


Parents' lives, hopes and dreams: Many young adolescents want a window to their parents' world, both past and present. How old were you when you got your ears pierced? Did you ever have a teacher who drove you crazy? Did you get an allowance when you were 11? If so, how much? Were you sad when your grandpa died? What is your boss like at work? This doesn't mean you are obligated to dump all of your problems and emotions into your child's lap.. However, recounting some things about your childhood and your life today can help your child sort out his own life.


The future: As the cognitive abilities of young adolescents develop, they begin to think more about the future and its possibilities. Your child may want to talk more about what to expect in the years to come—life after high school, jobs and marriage. He may ask questions such as, "What is it like to live in a college dormitory?" "How old do you have to be to get married?" These questions deserve the best answers that you can provide (and those that you can't answer deserve an honest, "I don't know.").


Culture, current events: Ours is a media-rich world. Even young children are exposed to television, music, movies, video and computer games and other forms of media. Remember, though, that the media can provide a window into your adolescent's world. For example, if you and your child have seen the same movie (together or separately), you can ask her whether she liked it and what parts she liked best. However hard your child pushes your buttons, it's best to respond calmly.



  1. Mention five  topics that generally interest young adolescents.
  2. Explain the term culture.



  1. Explain the role of parents in pubertal communication.s
  2. What do you understand by Create opportunities to talk?
  3. Mention five  topics that generally interest young adolescents:
  4. Explain the term  culture
  5. Mention three communication techniques



  1. It is important to express our feelings…….at all times. A. clearly B. harshly C. rudely D. anyway.
  2. -------- is a basic unit of society. A.  Family B.  Monogamy C.  Understanding 
  1. none.
  1. Communication promotes ------- A.  violence B.  understanding C.  dangers D. none.
  2. Establishing  eye contact  is a ------- technique A. communication B. explanation 
  1. information D. none.
  1. Communication makes you ------ A. alive B.  sing C.  see D. none



  1. Mention five  topics that generally interest young adolescents:
  2. Explain the term culture




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