Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1









  1. Definition And Brief History. 
  2. Uses of typewriter.
  3. Essential Parts of typewriter 
  4. Sitting Position 
  5. Typefaces 


Keyboarding is the act of manipulating a keyboard to produce information.. In other words, keyboarding is the utilization of a keyboard for typing and other computer functions. Keyboard exists both in typewriter and in computer. But in typewriting, keyboarding does not have to result in hard copy whereas typewriting usually does.

Keyboarding is used as communication tool to convey information to others. Before the Invention of typewriter, Man first recorded his ideas and messages on stone, then on leather, and later on paper which was much lighter than either stone or leather. The use of paper allowed man to send his thoughts to other people many kilometers away. The preparation of these messages, however, took a long time, even with the use of pen and paper. Then the typewriter was invented in 1829.. 


Typewriter is a machine which can print letters on papers by means of keys. When these keys are struck with the fingers, they make impression on paper, via an Ink-laden ribbon. A typewriter is a useful office equipment. 



  1. Keyboarding skills are important because it takes short time to produce handwritten materials for personal and professional uses.
  2. Substantial amount of money can be saved by typing one’s personal documents and they will remain confidential.
  3. Keyboarding skills can impact a person’s ability to communicate with others in the future.
  4. Good keyboarding skills help to provide employment opportunities as business organisations are looking for competent keyboard operators.
  5. Keyboard is the primary source of inputting information into computers.



  1. Define the term keyboarding. 
  2. Mention importance of keyboarding. 



The essential Parts of typewriter are:

  1. Carriage: This is the moveable part of the typewriter. Each time a key or space bar is pressed, it moves the width of a letter.
  2. Carriage return lever and line spacer:- this lever is use for returning the carriage from the end of line. 
  3. Cylinder (Platen, Roller):- This is a roller, around which the paper is held. 
  4. Cylinder Knobs (Left & right):- These are used for turning the paper into position either upward or downward. 
  5. Carriage release lever (left & right):- These are levers which, when depressed, allow the carriage to be moved freely to the left and right. 
  6. Line space gauge or regulator:- This is a lever that regulates the depth of the spacing between the lines. 
  7. Margin Stop (left & right): These are used to fix the points at which the lines of typewriting begin on the left and end on the right. 
  8. Paper guide:- This is an adjustable guide against which the left – hand edge of the paper is position as it is inserted in the typewriter
  9. Paper table:- This is a resting ground for the typing sheet and prevents it from slipping Over the Carriage or typewriter. 
  10. Paper bail bar with Scale:- This is a moveable arm, marked with a typing scale, on which the Paper grips are mounted. 
  11. Back Space Key or (back Spacer):- This is used to move the carriage backward or gives space at a time. 
  12. Roller on paper bail: These are small, black rubber rollers located around the paper bail. They guide the typing sheet firmly and smoothly on the platen while typing is on going on.
  13. Paper release lever: This lever, when pulled forward, Moves the feed rollers away from platen. 
  14. Space bar: This is located at the lower end of the keyboard. It is used to give accurate spacing after each word, while typing is going on. 
  15. Printing Point: This is the “V” axis, through which the key strikes the ribbon, to Imprint on the Paper. 
  16. Tabulator bar: This is a set of three bars, consisting of a tabular set, a tabular selector and a tabular release. It is Used to regulate Spacing, especially for a Schedule which involves Vertical and horizontal lines. 
  17. Margin release Key: when depressed, this allows for typing beyond the set margins point at either end of the line. 


Basically there are two common types namely PICA and ELITE. 

PICA is bold printing which gives ten strokes (characters) to 1 (one) inch (2.54cm) of space on the horizontal bar. 

ELITE: This is small prints (Smaller type face), giving twelve strokes (characters) to 1 inch (2.54cm) of space. 



To keep the typewriter in good working condition, proper care and maintenance are necessary. 

The following Points must be noted and complied with at all times. 

  1. The typewriter must not be moved from one desk to another i.e it must be kept stationery on a spacious table at a fixed point in the office. 
  2. The typeface must be cleaned daily and the machine dusted on daily basis. 
  3. The typewriter must be covered when not in use to prevent dust from setting on the machine. 
  4. When the machine develops a fault, an expert must be called in to repair it. 
  5. Always use a backing sheet to protect the platen from damage. 

The names given to someone who works with typewriter are (i) typists  (ii) stenographers (iii) Secretaries. 



  1. Mention and explain five essential parts of typewriter that you know. 
  2. Explain two common types of typefaces you know. 



Business Studies for Junior Secondary School Bk One Page 56-64 



  1. The act of manipulating computer keys to produce information is called    A. drilling  B. formatting  C. keyboarding   D. typewriting 
  2. Typewriter was invented in the year A. 1892  B. 1867  C. 1829  D. 1830. 
  3. The part of the typewriter that moves from right to left when typing is called                                  A. carriage B. platen C. carriage return lever D. carriage release lever. 
  4. All of these are part of the typewriter except A. shift key B. Backing sheet C. Back spacer  D. paper bail.
  5. When typing a continuous capital, depress the ________ A. Space bar  B. Shift key  C. Shift locks D. Back spacer. 



  1. What is typewriter? . 
  2. Mention six parts of typewriter. 
  3. Give four ways of taking care of a typewriter.



  1. Define partnership.
  2. State four characteristics of partnership..
  3. State four advantages of partnership.
  4. Mention four sources of capital for partnership
  5. What is deed of partnership?

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