Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1







  1. Effective English Text Book. J.S.S1 . Michael Montgomery et al.
  2. Count Down English. Revised Edition. O. Ogunsanwo et al.
  3. Creative and Guided Composition for Senior Classes. C.O Odetola




CONTENT: /iᶕ/ & /ai/


/iᶕ/                        /ai/

seer, bear, union                                             bye, pies                      near, idea, India                                               buy, bite, night

glorious, curious          isle, file, tiles, 


EVALUATION: Give ten more examples on each pair.



CONTENT:    Tenses occur only in verbs. Although it is usual to talk about the past, present and other tenses. It refers to the change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate time. This could be either in the active or passive voice.


Sentences written in the active voice are easier to understand than sentences written in the passive voice. Switching the passive voice into the active voice is straightforward, but it requires a bit of practice. In the equivalency table below, notice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice is always the same as the tense of the main verb in the active voice. In order to use the active voice, you will have to make the subject of the action explicit.



Tense           Active voice    Passive voice   Active sentence                          Passive equivalent

Simple Present    keep                  is kept               I keep the butter in the fridge The butter is kept in the fridge

Present is keeping        is being kept     John is keeping my house tidy  My house is being kept tidy


Simple Past          keptwas kept           Mary kept her schedule             Mary's schedule was 

                                                                                     meticulously                                 kept meticulously

Past                       was keeping    was being         The theater was keeping            A seat was being kept for you

Continuouskept                   a seat for you  



CONTENT:  See Effective English, Unit 16


EVALUATION: Practice 2/3. See Effective English, book 1. Unit 16




Aquaculture - The controlled cultivation and harvest of aquatic plants or animals such as edible marine algae, clams, oysters, and salmon.

Arbor - the centre of a centre pin reel's spool. The arbor can also be a knot.

Arbor knot - knot used for tying backing to the arbor of the fly reel.

Arlseybomb - a pear shape lead weight developed by the late Dick Walker used for fishing

ArtificialBaits - lures or flies made of wood, plastic, metal, feathers, or similar inert material

Attractor - this is an additive that is used with the bait or mixed with the groundbait. Flavour attractors can be sweet or spicy. 



Back shot - back shot can be the piece of shot placed up the line behind a sliding leger or feeder or is a piece of shot placed on the line behind a float to help keep it steady in windy conditions. The piece of shot is placed about a foot away from the float tip and is usually a piece of shot from the float rig so it doesn't sink.

Back cast - the casting of line in a direction opposite to the direction the fly is intended to go. The backward counterpart of the forward cast which acts to create a bending action on the fly rod, setting up the conditions to generate the forward cast and present the fly.

Backing line - old line or string padding that is attached to a reel to fill up the spool before attaching the line.

Backwater - an area of a river that is sometimes isolated.

Bagging up - catching lots of fish during a fishing session.

Bag limit - fishery restriction in the number of fish that an angler may retain, on a per trip or daily basis. Generally pertaining to trout..Also known as Creel limit.

Bail arm - the wire part of a fixed-spool reel that guides the line on the spool.

Bait - anything used on the hook to entice and capture the fish.

Bait band - used with boilies and pellets etc. A small elastic band that is wrapped around a bait and the hook is passed under the band or nicked through it so that the bait hangs from the side or the base of the hook. Bait bands are available in a variety of sizes to suit different sized baits.

Bait boat - remote controlled boat used mainly for carp fishing by carp anglers or by specialist anglers to place both their baited rig and loose feed, such as boilies, accurately at distances unachievable by casting.

Bait box - used for carrying your bait such as maggots.

Bait-clip - a clip that holds the baited hook during the cast.

Bait dropper - a device used to put hookbait samples down to the bottom of your swim. It is basically a cage with a door on the side held closed with a latch. When lowered down to the bottom the latch is pushed up and opens the cage door letting the bait fall out.

Bait fish - any fish that is of primary prey to a larger fish.

Bait needle - a needle that has had one side of the eye removed making a small hook. When used for baiting a hair rig you put the boilies or whatever bait you want to use onto this needle and then hook the hair rig loop onto the needle and pull the bait off the needle and onto the hair rig line. Then you put a bit of grass or boilie stop through the loop to hold the bait on, pull the bait down to it and your ready to go.

Baitrunner - especially used by carp or specimen anglers this is an open faced reel with a rear drag system that has a lever at the back. Line can be pulled off freely by a hooked fish and when the lever is activated the normal drag mechanism is engaged

Baitwell - a special well in a boat that holds the bait.

Ball bearings - small metal balls added to the mechanical mechanism of high-quality reels to make the retrieve smoother. Normally the more ball bearings a reel has the higher quality.

Balling up - throwing in lots of balls of groundbait into your swim such as at the start of a bream fishing session.

Balsa - type of wood floats used to be made of and still are in some cases, several lures are also manufactured from balsa wood. This wood is very light, yet highly buoyant.

Bank - The ground next to a body of water.

Bank fishing - fishing from the bank of a river, lake or other water as opposed to fishing from a boat

Bankstick - a straight rod that is pointed at one end and is threaded at the other end. The pointed is pushed into the ground. and into the threaded end is screwed a rod rest, keepnet or bait alarm. A reed cutter can be screwed into a bankstick making it into a long


Evaluation: Use a dictionary to discover more words




These are the most important elements to remember when it comes to description:

  • The reader needs description to paint the picture of a location or scene in their head, but too much bogs down the story, slows the pace and detracts from the forward movement of the plot.
  • It’s essential to describe your characters as soon as possible after they’re introduced. But, don’t over describe them – let the reader fill in their own details, this enables them to cement a picture of the character in their mind.
  • Use the five senses as much as possible, think about what your character can hear, see, smell. Think about touch and taste. Don’t use too many senses in each scene, but use them to paint a real, tangible picture.
  • Use colour well.
  • Practice writing description – e.g. describe characters whose pictures you have found in magazines, or describe a room you’ve visited.
  • Don’t overdo description – remember the join-the-dots rule – let the reader fill in some detail for themselves.
  • Metaphors can be very powerful in description, evoking a mood or theme that runs through your story. Don’t forget, if you’ve heard it before it’s a cliché – to be avoided at all costs – you are a writer, be creative, come up with your own metaphors and similes.
  • Use description to develop mood – a stormy day, a bright white apartment.
  • Tie description to action to show the reader rather than tell them what is happening.
  • Be aware of what you can assume the reader knows (e.g. the shape of a newspaper), and what they don’t know.
  • Quirky details are good – they stand out in the reader’s mind. Do your research and build on a small detail to inform the reader about your characters and locations.


Instruction:   The author wants to do more than tell your about her teacher. She wants to create in your mind a clear mental picture of whom her favourite teacher is.  As you read, look for ways the author uses language to create a picture for you.



My favourite teacher was Mrs. Ruby who had taught me English for two years. She had studied in America and came back to Hong Kong to be an English teacher. She had sparkle eyes and blond hair. She 's just a bit taller than I was. She always smiled at us as we saw each other in the hallway at school. She seemed very strict when the first I met her. However, we had a lot of fun during her classes as we had been told the jokes in English. She had skills at teaching, sense of humor, friendly, patient and easygoing.


I had had her classes when I was in grade 10. I got good marks on it since then. She gave us tons of assignments which were for improving our English. She's very patient and enthusiastic to teach us whenever we had questions in her classes. Moreover, she would stay at school after school finished for hours to solve the problems that we had in her class. She would spend her private time to teach us western penmanship which was using two pencils and tightened them together with rubber bands. Then we could draw a letter with them. It 's amazing. I learnt it while I had lunch with her. She would talk about her life also during lunch and I found we had a lot in common. She liked eating Chinese and Japanese. Her favorite band was Westlife as I was. She always listened to pop music and sang karaoke. She said that it would be the way to be easier communicating with her students. She's always friendly and easygoing.


She encouraged us to do voluntary work after school or at weekends. She was in charge of YMCA and leaded a group of students to do lots different kinds of services. Such as cleaning houses for seniors who lived by themselves; selling stickers for charity; leading blind people to walk in the street regularly and planting bushes for the protesting environment organization. She's a very helpful person.


EVALUATION: Discuss the elements of descriptive essay as used in the passage



  1. Effective English, book 1. Page 193. Test for Continuous Assessment.

  2. Active and Passive Voice Exercise.


Sentences are given in the active voice. Change them into the passive voice.

  1. He teaches English.
  2. The child is eating bananas.
  3. She is writing a letter.
  4. The master punished the servant.
  5. He was writing a book.
  6. Who wrote this letter?
  7. Somebody cooks meal every day.
  8. He wore a blue shirt.
  9. May God bless you with happiness!
  10. They are building a house.


  1. Write a descriptive essay on your favourite pet.



  1. Effective English, book 1. Page 133.Practice.

  2. Active and Passive Voice Exercise.


Rewrite the following in the passive voice.

  1. Who wrote this letter?
  2. Somebody cooks meal every day.
  3. He wore a blue shirt.
  4. May God bless you with happiness!
  5. They are building a house.
  6. I have finished the job.
  7. I sent the report yesterday.
  8. She bought a diamond necklace.
  9. Somebody had stolen my pen


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