Date: 27th of February- 17th of March 2023
Class: JSS 1
Term: 2nd Term
Subject: Agricultural Science
Teaching Aid: A chart
Reference Book: WABP Junior secondary Agriculture for Nigerian School 1 by Anthony Youdeowei et al
Behavioural Objectives: By the end of this topic, students should be able to
Step 1: Teacher revises last topic
Step 2: Teacher introduces and explains new topic
Step 3: Teacher writes note on the board
Step 4: Teacher evaluates students
Step 5: Teacher marks students' notes and give assignment
Previous knowledge: Students have been taught weeds
Pest is defined as only living organism, plant or animal which can cause damage to our cultivated crop plant, farm animal and human. Examples of common pest include insect like grasshoppers and beetles, mammals such as rats and monkey and bird such as weaver bird.
CLASSIFICATION OF INSECT PESTS ACCORDING TO THEIR FEEDING HABIT
According to their mode of feeding insect pest are classified into three groups. These are:
BITTING AND CHEWING INSECT PESTS
Insect pests in this group have mouth parts which are specially made for biting and chewing plat. The mouth parts of insect in this group consist of a pair of very hard biting jaws called mandibles, a second pair of jaw called maxillae, flat upper lip called the labrum and lower lip known as librum. The mandibles are sued to bite off and chew parts of the crop while maxillae are used to bite off and chew parts of the crops into the mouth. Examples of biting and sucking insects pests are crickets, grasshoppers, beetle, termites, army worm, mantils.
PIERCING AND SUCKING INSECT PESTS
The insects in this group have mouth part that are shaped like injection needles, called probaxix, hena, their mouth parts are adapted to pierce into plant parts and sucking the sap and juice of plant. Example of piercing and sucking insects include aphids, cotton stainer, mealy buds, white flies and capsids.
These are insects that bore hole into plats tissues and seeds. Boring insects are also called burrowing insects. Examples of boring insects are beans beetles, weevils such as rice and maize weevil.
CLASSIFICATION OF INSECT BASED ON THEIR LOCATION
Based on location, insect pest are classified into two namely:
iii. Root feeders: Examples are yam beetles.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE, PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS
Pest may cause damages to crops in the following ways:
PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS
Generally, insect pests can be effectively controlled through the following measure.
This involves the use of good cultural practices in order to reduce or destroy insect population and to help crops escape insect attack. These cultural practices include:
This involves the physical removal of insect pest from the farm. The following insect pest on the farm though: (i) Hand Picking (ii) Air tight storage
This involves the introduction of the natural enemies of the insect pest. The pest enemies are introduced to feed on the insect pest thereby reducing the population of the pest. For instance ladybirds are introduced in an aphid infested farm to eat up the aphid.
This is the used of chemicals to protect crops from insect attack and if the attack is established they are used to kill the insect pests at various stages of their life cycles. Chemical control is the most effective method of controlling insect pest and chemical used for insect control include:
Quarantine is a period of isolation and observation imposed by law in imported materials include seeds, plants and animals. The materials are kept long enough to observe them for nay disease symptoms. If symptoms are detected, the materials are either destroyed or exported to the country where it was purchased at the expense of the importer.
Evaluation: describe insect pests
Assignment: Draw and label any insect pest
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