Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1



SUBJECT: ENGLISH LANGUAGE                                 



  1. Effective English Text Book. J.S.S1 . Michael Montgomery et al.
  2. Count Down English. Revised Edition. O. Ogunsanwo et al. 
  3. Creative and Guided Composition for Senior Classes. C.O Odetola





What is an Adverb?

An adverb is a word that is used to modify (to tell more about) a verb, an adjective, and another adverb.



Adverbsof Manner

Adverbs of manner are ones that answer the question "how?" These adverbs show how something, such as an action, is done. In a sentence, manner adverbs typically follow the verb, which is a part of speech that represents a state or action, such as "sing." An example of an adverb of manner used in a sentence is the word "beautifully" in the sentence "he sings beautifully." More examples are: swiftly, slowly, sluggishly etc.


Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of time demonstrate when something, such as an action, happens or is done; these types of adverbs answer the question "when?" An adverb of time is situated by the English speaker or writer at the beginning or the end of a sentence. An example of an adverb of time used in a sentence is the word "yesterday" in the sentence "I saw you yesterday." More examples are: later, before, ago, when etc.

 Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place show a listener or reader where something, such as an action like "walk," happens or is done. These adverbs answer the question "where?" In a sentence, adverbs of place are used following the verb. A simple example of a place adverb used in a sentence is the word "here" used in the sentence "I live here." A more complicated example is the phrase "in the restaurant" used in the sentence "we met her in the restaurant." More examples are: there, in, outside, inside, etc.


Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of degree, or quantity, are parts of speech that answer the question "how much?" or "to what extent?" These are placed before the adverb, which is a part of speech that describes a verb, adverb or adjective, and the adjective, which is a part of speech that describes a noun, in a sentence. An example of an adverb of degree is the word "nearly" in the sentence "the glass is nearly full."More examples are: fully, extremely etc.


Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency are often-used parts of speech that answer the question "how often?" Examples of adverbs of frequency include such words as "never," "seldom," "usually," "almost," "hardly ever," "sometimes," "already," "quite," "occasionally" and "rarely." These adverbs follow the verb "to be" and are placed before the simple tenses of all other verbs. A frequency adverb is the word "often" in the sentence "he is often happy."More examples: rarely, seldom, never etc.


EVALUATION:  Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill in the blanks with the corresponding adverb.

  1. James is careful. He drives
  2. The girl is slow. She walks
  3. Her English is perfect. She speaks English
  4. Our teacher is angry. She shouts
  5. My neighbor is a loud speaker. He speaks




References: My English Grammar




Formal letter

A formal letter is also known as official letter or business letter. It is the kind of letter we write to people we don’t know or are not used to. Here, the language you use must be formal/official. Examples of this kind of letter are the letter we write to commissioners, ministers, editors, etc.

Features of Formal Letter

A formal letter has the following features:

  • Introduction
  • Body and
  • Conclusion

In a formal letter, before anything else, the address comes first. Two addresses are to be written. The writer’s address and the recipient’s address. The writer’s address is written at the top right corner of the paper while the recipient’s address is written at the left side immediately after the writer’s address. Next is the salutation followed by the title. Note that after the recipient’s address you must skip a line before writing the salutation

It is important to note that if the letter is going outside Nigeria, there will be a comma after Lagos followed by Nigeria, then you add a full stop. Below is a sample:

56, Disgruntled Street,                                                                                                               

Maple Close,                                                                                                                   

Lagos State,                                                           


28th January, 2018

Customer Service Manager,
Thatcher Company,                                                                                                                                                                                    


Dear Sir/Madam,


I am writing today to complain of the poor service I received from your company on June 15, 2017. I was visited by a representative of Thatcher Company, Mr. Green, at my home on that day.

            Mr. Green was one hour late for his appointment and offered nothing by way of apology when he arrived at noon. Your representative did not remove his muddy shoes upon entering my house, and consequently left a trail of dirt in the hallway. Mr. Green then proceeded to present a range of products to me that I had specifically told his assistant by telephone I was not interested in. I repeatedly tried to ask your representative about the products that were of interest to me, but he refused to deal with my questions. We ended our meeting after 25 minutes without either of us having accomplished anything.

I am most annoyed that I wasted a morning (and half a day's vacation) waiting for Mr. Green to show up. My impression of  Thatcher Company has been tarnished, and I am now concerned about how my existing business is being managed by your firm. Furthermore, Mr. Green's inability to remove his muddy shoes has meant that I have had to engage the services, and incur the expense, of a professional carpet cleaner.

I trust this is not the way Thatcher Company wishes to conduct business with valued customers—I have been with you since the company was founded and have never encountered such treatment before. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss matters further and to learn of how you propose to prevent a similar situation from recurring. I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,                                                           


Mr. Funny

Note that if you choose to write the title all in capital letters you do not need to underline. But if you choose to write the title in initial capital letter you must underline.


EVALUATION: Study the letter about above and write your own.


References: My English Grammar



A vowel sound is made with a free flow of air through the mouth without any obstruction either by the tongue or the lips

e.g /e/ is pronounced freely as in “set” /set/

Common spelling  symbols of /u/                                    oo – wool, foot ; u – push, full;  o --  wolf, woman;  ou --  would, should


EVALUATION: In the sentence below, identify words with /u/ sound.

The wolf pushed thedoor open and looked into the room. When the cook saw the wolf, the cook shook with fear and ran away.


References: Oral English



CONTENT: See Effective English, book 1. Page 125/126

EVALUATION: Practice 2



It is a narrative that possesses the twin attributes of straight and surface meaning: denotative and connotative meaning. It  is keen to point out a moral truth in a civilized and inoffensive manner.


  1. Honesty is a great virtue
  2. Obedience to instruction pays



African folktales are usually didactic, entertaining and even magical at times. Characters sometimes could be animal characters which are meant to talk and dialogue among themselves as human beings.


EVALUATION: Write any folktale you know.



  1. Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill in the blanks with the corresponding adverb
  2. He is a bad writer. He writes
  3. Jane is a nice guitar player. 
  4. He plays the guitar
  1. He is a good painter . He paints
  2. She is a quiet girl. She does her job
  3. This exercise is easy. You can do it 
  1. Write a letter of permission to be absent from school to the principal.



    1.  Write ten sentences identifying the adverbs therein.
    2. Write a letter to the local publishing firm around you, reporting a recent incident that happened around your area.

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