SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE
WEEK SEVEN AND EIGHT
TOPIC: FAMILY HEALTH (II) (NUTRITION)
FOOD AND BALANCED DIET
Nutrition is the intake of food by all living organisms(i.e. plants and animals) in order to live well.
Food is a substance that we eat and digest in order to provide energy and help in body building. Food is also anything taken to provide energy, nutrients, to build the body, to relace worn-out cells and to grow and develop a healthy body. It includes many things we eat and drink except alcohol, cigarettes and drugs
BALANCED DIET: An adequate diet is one that is sufficient in quantity and food nutrients in required amount or proportions.
An adequate diet is called balanced diet.
In terms of quantity, the human body requires more carbohydrates followed by proteins lipids, vitamins and minerals.
PROCEDURE FOR PLANNING A BALANCED DIET
1 Plan in a tabular form, an adequate diet for your home, in your own part of Nigeria.
2 Use as far as possible locally produced food items.
3 In cases where you have a choice use food items you personally prefer.
TYPES OF FOOD
1 Solid or liquid e.g.
Solid foods Liquid foods
Rice Cocoa drinks like Milo
Bread Bourn vita
Beans Fruit juice
Foods eaten raw
Food can also be grouped into three categories according to the functions they perform in the body . These are:
Classes Of Food
Classes of food
Carbohydrates e.g. Yam, Garri, Millet, Potato
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen with Hydrogen and Oxygen in ratio 2 : 1
Proteins e.g. milk, cheese, eggs, yoghurt, beans
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, sometimes sulphur and phosphorus
Fats and oils (lipids e.g. palm oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, animal fats
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen fats are solid, while oils are liquid at room temperature.
Vitamins we have vitamin A,B,C,D,E AND K.
Vitamins are made up of living organisms.
Mineral salts e.g. potassium, calcium, sulphur, phosphorus, nitrogen
They are chemical substance for human health
Water is made up of and oxygen
1 Which of the following is not a food item? (a) Milk (b) Spinach (c) Orange (d) Alcohol
3 _______ is a substance we eat and digest and give energy to the body (a) Starch (b) Food (c) Protein (d) Balance diet
4 Which of the following is the function of vitamins in the human body ?(a) providing energy (b) preserving health (c) body building (d) none of the above
5 The following food items are sources of carbohydrate except (a) beans (b) yam (c) rice (d) orange
1 Prepare an adequate diet chart.
2 List the six classes of food and their functions.
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