Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1

The Human Body (IV)






  1. Anyakoha, Elizabeth U. Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools. Onitsha, Nigeria: African First Publishers Limited, 2010.
  2. Olaitan, S. O. & Mbah, C.O. Junior Secondary School Home Economics Book 3. Lagos, Nigeria: West African Book Publishers Limited, 2009.



TOPIC: The Human Body (IV)

  1. Structure and Parts of the Teeth, Hands and Feet
  2. Functions of the Teeth, Hands and Feet
  3. Ways of Caring for the Teeth, Hands and Feet

Structure of the Tooth

A tooth is made up of the following parts:

  1. The Crown: the part of the tooth projecting above the gum.
  2. The Root: the part buried in the jaw-bone.
  3. The Neck: the space between the crown and the root.
  4. The Dentine: the tough centre of the tooth which surrounds and protects the pulp cavity.
  5. The Pulp Cavity: Contains blood vessels and nerves.
  6. The Enamel: a very hard substance which covers the crown of the tooth.


Types of Teeth and Their Functions

  1. The Incisors: These are in the centre of the front of the jaw. They are used for cutting off lumps of food.
  2. The Canine: These are beside the incisors. They are pointed and used for tearing food. They are sometimes called “dog” teeth.
  3. Premolars: These are next to the canine. Each has one or more points for cutting. They may also have flat surfaces for grinding food.
  4. Molars: These are behind the premolars. They are similar to the premolars. They are however only present in the permanent dentition. Children do not therefore have molars. 


Care of the Tooth

  1. Choose and use good tooth cleaning materials such as chewing sticks, tooth brushes and tooth pastes.
  2. Clean your teeth every morning and at bedtime with either a clean chewing stick or tooth brush with paste.
  3. Rinse your teeth properly after each meal, especially after eating sweet foods.
  4. Avoid using your teeth as nut-crackers or opener for soft drinks and beer bottle.
  5. Do not pick your teeth with sharp instruments such as pins, needles, etc.
  6. Eat balanced diets for strong healthy teeth. Some important foods are milk, fruit, fish, meat, and other sources of calcium.
  7. Exercise your teeth by eating fairly hard foods like maize, carrots, coconuts, etc.
  8. Do not eat sweets or highly sweet foods which cause tooth or dental decay.
  9. Avoid extremely hot and cold food. These may crack the enamel leading to tooth decay.


Hands and Feet

Structure of the Hands and Feet

The hands and feet are parts of the upper and lower limbs. The hand starts from the wrist. It is made up of the palm, the fingers and the nails. The first finger is called thumb.

The leg starts from the ankle and consists of the heel, sole, toes and nails. Each nail consists of (i) the nail plate; (ii) the nail crescent, which is the white crescent base of the nail plate; (iii) the cuticle, which is the thin protective band of the skin around the nail; and  (iv) the nail bed, which is the base of the nail.


Functions of Hands and Feet

  1. The hands and fingers are used for touching things.
  2. They are also used for doing different types of work.
  3. The legs give us support.
  4. The legs are used for walking about.
  5. The legs also perform many other useful activities, such as playing games, dancing, etc.


Care of the Hands

  1. Wash the hands after using the toilet, after each meal.
  2. Always wash the hands with mild soap.
  3. Always scrub around and under the finger nail using face towel or soft sponge.
  4. Rinse the hands with clean water.
  5. Dry properly with clean cloth.
  6. Apply a little hand lotion or cream to keep the hand soft.
  7. Keep the finger nails well-trimmed and clean.

Care of the Nails

  1. Trim the finger nails regularly to keep them short and round.
  2. Keep the white crescent around the bottom of the nail clean and prominent.
  3. Do not use the teeth for trimming the nails; use a pair of scissors, a nail file or razor blade. 
  4. Remove any dirt that accumulates under the nail carefully using a soft finger-nail brush or any other suitable material.
  5. Do not use pointed sharp objects beneath the nail for cleaning it. 
  6. Give the finger nails special cleaning after working in the farm. Wash off decolouration, and remove dirt under the nail.


Care of the Feet

  1. Wash the feet thoroughly and as often as possible, and then dry them carefully. Always pay enough attention to the parts between the toes.
  2. Remove any rough dry skin around the sole of the feet by rubbing with a pumice stone.
  3. Rinse properly and dry with a clean towel.
  4. Apply a coating of cream, lotion or petroleum jelly on the feet after washing, to prevent dryness.
  5. Keep the toe nails short and clean so that they do not habour germs.
  6. Avoid the habit of waking bare-footed especially on unpaved ground.
  7. Wear good-fitting and comfortable shoes.
  8. Keep your stockings clean. It is best to change stockings daily.
  9. Always keep the feet clean and dry, especially around the toes, to prevent the growth of fungus, e.g. athlete’s foot. Germs flourish in wet dry areas.
  10. Wherever possible, elevate or raise the feet by placing them on a small stool, especially after standing or walking for a long time, to rest them.
  11. Always check your posture to be sure you are walking tall. 
  12. Treat your feet to a regular pedicure.

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