Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1

Adverbs: Definition, Identification and Types


SUBJECT:  English Language




Topic: Adverbs: Definition, Identification and Types


An adverb is a word, which tells us more about an action. It is the word, which tells us: where, when, why, how often, to what degree, an action is performed.

In other words, we can have the adverbs of manner (how) frequency (how often), reason (why), time (when) degree (to what degree), please (where).

We shall look at just adverbs of manner and frequency in this lesson.


Types of Adverbs

  1. Adverbs of Time

They tell us when a thing is done or when a thing happens.

Examples:  suddenly, immediately, since, before, after when etc.

Suddenly: A thing happens suddenly when it happens without warning. No one expects it.

Immediately: This means that something happens without any delay. It happens at once, straight away.

Soon: A thing happens after only a short time.

After a time:     These means ‘later on’ we do not know how much time passes after a while    before the thing happens


  1. Adverbs of frequency: They tell us how often a thing is done. They usually come before the verb in a sentence. But if the verb is a word like ‘am’, ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘was’, ‘were’, ‘have’, ‘has’ the adverb of frequency comes after it. E.g. The weather is usually hot in March. Other adverbs of  frequency are.

I never arrive late for class.

I seldom arrive late for class.

 It sometimes rains in January.

I usually get up at half past six

 I often get high marks for my work.

I frequently ask questions in class.

I always  go to house

She occasionally visits her pastor.

We normally play musical instruments.

The rarely goes to church.


  1. Adverbs of manner: They tell us how a thing is done. They usually come after the verb in a sentence.


He ran quickly

She walked slowly

She runs fast

She ate her food hurriedly

They sang loudly.



Make a sentence with each of the following adverbs.







Reading Assignment: Exam Focus p.63-65




English Grammar for J.S.S pages 53 & 54


Topic : Comprehension: Oduduwa

Content: Unit 7a Page 91

Evaluation: Practice 2/3

Topic: Descriptive Essay : A Market Place

Content: Sample Essay


Descriptive Writing: A Busy Market

        The market roared with rage for it now was awake from its peaceful slumber. The shops were stuffed and street vendors made the street extremely narrow forcing people to walk in a straight file like soldiers going to battle. Shops of all different species stood on either side of the street obediently. None of them had doors for the shopkeepers knew very well that the doors would not last long against the might, impatience, and violence of the customers. Herds of people climbed on top of each other at the counter of each shop yelling wildly like mindless monkeys brawling for a banana.

      Large tattered wagons decorated with a collage of vegetable were parked beside the street and their owners stood beside them screaming prices like auctioneers, but instead of a hammer, they had a carrot which they would use to wade of the flies pointlessly dancing around the vegetables. Sweaty buyers skilfully wove their way by locating minute gaps between people and squeezing through. Pickpockets felt like rabbits in a carrot field, and munched purses out of many pockets of innocent buyers too busy bargaining. Experienced visitors wore tight pants for the same reason. 

        A helpless woman fumbled through the scores of bags she carried and tried to tickon a list with a pen clenched between her teeth.The sun warmed up the stuffy, stinking air which smelled of sweat and rotting fish.No air freshener could have defeated this sour, rancid stink which ruled over the cramped air here.The afternoon flamed the market an exhaustion and breathlessness silently approached the first time visitors, but he everyday buyers proudly held on against the torture of the market and kept shopping.The deafening chaos in the market made ears split as if you were standing under a giant speaker.

       Vendors yelled prices and frustrated housewives angrily argued with the annoyed shopkeepers. A nincompoop was trying to get his car across the market and carelessly honked to the river of people ahead completely ignoring him. It seemed as if all the sounds in the world had come to a reunion.

       The market was furious but seldom had anyone seen it while it slept. When a calm breeze swept over it and the crumpled paper lying below swept along. When the street was lifeless and silent as a graveyard. When the moonlight would faintly escape through the huddle of clouds draping the moon. When the market would lie there sleeping lightly ready to explode at the first sign of light. Seldom had people noticed this market's true beauty and enchantment. Older than the people in it was this market, and it lived like this everyday. With long forgotten secrets lying deeply buried in its roots and vast knowledge in its stem, it kept on living.


Evaluation: Write your own version of a market place you know.

Topic: Literature

Content: Use Recommended Text( Prose)


General Evaluation

Write on any of these descriptive essay topics:

1.Describe your favorite place.

2.Describe your ideal bedroom.

3.Describe the house in which you grew up.

4.Describe what the first house on the moon would look like.

5.Describe some of your favorite places in your hometown.

  1. Discover more types of adverbs with examples


Weekend Assignment:

Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill in the blanks with the corresponding adverb.

1.James is careful. He drives.......

2.The girl is slow. She walks.........

3.Her English is perfect. She speaks English..........

4.Our teacher is angry. She shouts.........

5.My neighbor is a loud speaker. He speaks. ........

6.He is a bad writer . He writes...........

7.Jane is a nice guitar player. He plays the guitar.......

8.He is a good painter . He paints.. ......

9.She is a quiet girl. She does her job........

10.This exercise is easy. You can do it......

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