Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1

The Human Body (III)






  1. Anyakoha, Elizabeth U. Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools. Onitsha, Nigeria: African First Publishers Limited, 2010.
  2. Olaitan, S. O. & Mbah, C.O. Junior Secondary School Home Economics Book 3. Lagos, Nigeria: West African Book Publishers Limited, 2009.



TOPIC: The Human Body (III)

  1. Structure and Parts of the Skin
  2. Functions of the Skin 
  3. Ways of Caring for the Skin


The Skin

The skin is the outer covering of the body. 


Structure of the Skin

The skin is made up of two main layers – the epidermis and the dermis or “true skin.”

The Epidermis – This is the outer layer. It has no blood vessels or nerves. It is covered with hairs and tiny holes called sweat pores. Sweat or perspiration passes out through the pores. 

The Dermis – This is the inner layer of the skin. It is made up of the following:

(i) Sweat glands which produce sweat.

(ii) Oil glands which produce oil that keeps the skin and hair fresh and soft.

(iii) Blood vessels and nerves which keep the skin healthy and help it to perform its functions.

(iv) Fat deposits which reduce heat loss from the body.


Functions of the Skin

  1. It protects the body from bacterial infection (germs), poor weather and injury. 
  2. It helps the body to get rid of waste products through sweating.
  3. It helps to keep the body temperature normal (i.e. at 98.40 0F or 37 0C), by producing sweat during hot weather. As the sweat dries up it cools the body.
  4. It also keeps the body warm in cold weather.
  5. When the sun shines on the skin, vitamin D is produced by the skin.


Types of Skin

  1. Normal Skin: is soft, clear, smooth and without spots or blemishes.
  2. Dry Skin: is usually thin, sensitive and wrinkles easily, especially around the mouth and eyes. This can result from poor feeding, ill health, dry weather, and lack of care.
  3. Oily Skin: is greasy and occurs when the oil gland produces too much oil.
  4. Combination Skin (Oily and Dry Skin): has some part of the skin oily e.g. the nose and fore-head, while other parts are dry e.g. the cheeks.


Care of the Skin

  1. Wash your whole body daily and more than once during hot, dry and dusty seasons.
  2. Always have a bath after serious games or exercises to avoid body odour.
  3. Use good toilet soap, soft sponge and clean water.
  4. Keep your towel, under-wears and other clothes clean.
  5. Avoid using other person’s towel and clothing.
  6. Do not use bleaching creams. 
  7. Eat balanced diet that is rich in milk, proteins, fruits, vegetables and cod liver oil. 
  8. Use mild skin creams and oils.
  9. Treat skin diseases and problems promptly.

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