SUBJECT: BASIC TECHNOLOGY
- NERDC, Basic Technology for JSS, Book 1
- EVANS, Basic Technology for JSS, Book 1
TOPIC: MATERIALS AND PROCESSING-IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD
- Identification of Wood
- The Structure of Wood (internal)
- Major Parts of a Tree (external)
- Types of Wood
- Uses of Wood
IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD
The materials used in technology include woods, metals, ceramics, rubbers and plastics. These materials come in different forms and each form performs a unique function. Wood is a hard fibrous substance that chiefly composes trees and bushes and is found beneath their bark.
Wood is one of the materials used in furniture making and in building construction. Different types of wood are identified by:
- their color,
- classification into soft and hard woods
- their properties e.g. hardwood has broad leaves while soft wood has needle – like leaves.
THE INTERANAL STRUCTURE OF A WOOD
The internal structure of wood is made up of the following:
- Cork cambium
- Mention the materials used in technology.
- Draw the structure of wood (internal).
There are trees all around us. Some are big and some are small.
MAJOR PARTS OF A TREE (EXTERNAL)
The major parts of a tree are:
- trunks (branches)
- flowers and
When a tree is allowed to remain for a long time, its trunk (stem) becomes bigger and bigger and the tree grow taller. The tree trunks are cut into wood or timber.
CLASSES OF WOOD
We have two classes of wood namely:
- HARD WOOD
- SOFT WOOD
PROPERTIES OF HARD WOOD
- It is dark in colour.
- They are gotten from DECIDUOUS TREES.
- It has a complex cellular structure
- It is heavy.
- It has annual rings which are not visible.
- Hardwood trees have broad leaves.
- Examples include Iroko ,Afara , Mahogany ,Opepe, Omo e.t.c.
Hard wood is used for furniture making and building construction.
PROPERTIES OF SOFT WOOD
- It has lighter colour than hardwood.
- It is not heavy.
- It is easy to work on.
- It is gotten from CONIFEROUS TREE.
- Softwood trees have narrow and needle like leaves.
- Softwood trees are usually evergreen because they do not shed their leaves in dry season.
- Examples include spruce, fine, cedar, cypress e.t.c
- These are trees that bear naked seeds called (cones)
- These trees grow better in a temperate region (cold region of the world)
USES OF WOOD
Wood is used today in the following industries and processes:
- HOUSING: Wood is used for home furniture as doors, window and roofing.
- INDUSTRIAL BUILDING: Many industries are constructed using wood.
- JOINERY: Wood is used for making staircase in our buildings today.
- PACKAGING: Packaging technologist cannot do without wood for making crates, pallet, and packaging electronics equipment.
- FURNITURE; Chairs, bed, wardrobes, table book-cases etc.
- TRANSPORT: Railway, train-wagons, lorry-body.
- BRIDGES AND POLES: Most farm bridges and bridges across the roads in villages are made with wood. Some electric poles and railway sleepers are made of wood.
- PULP AND PAPER: Exercise book, textbooks, magazines e.t.c are made from pulp and paper derived from wood.
- MEDICINE: People who have their arms and legs amputated (cut off) such are usually replaced by artificial limbs made from wood.
- CLOTHING: Most heels and some soles shoes are made from wood e.g. the rayon stocking.
- TOOL MAKING: Handles for hammer, pick axes, felling axes, screw driver and many other tools are made from wood.
- Differentiate between hard and soft wood.
- Mention five (5) uses of wood.
Read on Identification of Metals from Introductory Technology (JSS1) by Evans. Pages 27-31.
- ____ is a hard fibrous substance that chiefly composes trees and bushes and is found beneath their bark (a) Tree (b) Plastics (C) Metal (d) Wood
- The materials used in technology include the following except (a) wood (b) metals
(c) ceramics (d) cassava
- The major parts of a tree are as follow except (a) roots (b) trunks (branches) and leaves (c) flowers and seeds (d) furniture
- ____ are trees that shed their leaves in the dry season to prevent water loss. e.g. Iroko, Afara, Mahogany, Opepe, Omo (a) Hard wood trees (b) Soft wood trees (c) Di-cotyledonous trees (d) Coniferous trees
- Examples of soft wood trees include the following except (a) spruce and vine (b) cedar
(c) cypress (d) Afara
- Explain why wood is referred to as a material for technology.
- Draw the major parts of a tree (external).
- State and give examples of the types of wood.
- Draw the structure of wood (internal).