Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1

The Human Body (II)






  1. Anyakoha, Elizabeth U. Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools. Onitsha, Nigeria: African First Publishers Limited, 2010.
  2. Olaitan, S. O. & Mbah, C.O. Junior Secondary School Home Economics Book 3. Lagos, Nigeria: West African Book Publishers Limited, 2009.



TOPIC: The Human Body (II)


  1. Structure and Parts of the Ear and Nose
  2. Functions of the Ear and Nose 
  3. Care and Grooming of the Ear and Nose


The Ear

The ear is one of the five sense organs of the body. It is used for hearing and balance.


Structure of the Ear

The ear is divided into three parts – the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. 

The outer ear is the part we see. It looks like a funnel. It picks sounds or vibrations. The vibrations are carried to the eardrum, which is between the outer ear and the middle ear. The sound then passes through the auditory nerve. 

There are tiny hairs at the entrance of the outer ear. These traps dust and any tiny insects or objects that try to enter the inner parts of the ear. The passage also contains wax which further helps to trap dust and other objects.  




Functions of the Ear

  1. It is the sense organ for hearing.
  2. It helps us to maintain balance.


Care of the Ear

  1. Avoid putting any sharp object into the ear.
  2. Wash the outer ear daily and dry carefully with clean towel.
  3. Do not attempt to reach your internal ear (i.e. the middle ear and inner ear) with any object.
  4. Remove small excess of wax in the ear carnal gently with cotton swab.
  5. Large deposits wax in the ear should be removed by the doctor.
  6. Any form of ear-ache could be a danger sign for infection and should be reported to a doctor.
  7. Do not attempt to remove foreign bodies with any object; rather see a doctor.


The Nose

The nose is one of the five sense organs.  It is very important and affects the appearance of a person.


Structure of the Nose

The top of the nose consists of bone while the rest is made of cartilage, small muscles and skin lined with a fine moist mucous membrane. The lining of the membrane contains small glands which produces watery secretion. This secretion keeps the lining moist. 

The nose is divided into two nostrils by a partition called septum. The nerves of smell which run from the nose to the brain are called the olfactory nerves. There are tiny hairs at the entrance of the nose, and they act as filters for the air that goes to the lungs. 


Functions of the Nose

  1. It is the sense organ of smell.
  2. It acts as a passage or channel through which the air we breathe passes in and out of the lungs.
  3. The air entering the lungs is filtered and warmed by the tiny hairs at the entrance of the nostrils. 


Care of the Nose

  1. Avoid pushing objects into the nose.
  2. Avoid picking or poking the nose with finger nail or any object.
  3. Blow the nose gently and avoid the habit of sniffing.
  4. Avoid plucking the hair in the nose.
  5. When necessary, the nose should be cleaned with clean handkerchief or a clean piece of soft tissue paper.
  6. See a doctor for the treatment of any nose infection.
  7. When a foreign object such as a seed enters one nostril, close the unaffected one with the finger and blow the affected one. If the object fails to come out see a doctor.
  8. If both nostrils are blocked, breathe through the mouth and see a doctor immediately. 
  9. Do not attempt to remove any foreign object by poking at it with any instrument.


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