Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1

The Human Body (I)






  1. Anyakoha, Elizabeth U. Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools. Onitsha, Nigeria: African First Publishers Limited, 2010.
  2. Olaitan, S. O. & Mbah, C.O. Junior Secondary School Home Economics Book 3. Lagos, Nigeria: West African Book Publishers Limited, 2009.



TOPIC: The Human Body (I)

  1. Introduction
  2. Structure and Parts of the Hair and Eyes
  3. Functions of the Hair and Eyes
  4. Care and Grooming of the Hair and Eyes

  1. Introduction

The human body is made up of different parts, which include the head, eyes, nose, ears teeth, skin, hands, fingers, nails and feet.


The Hair

The hair is one of the greatest assets of human beings.


Structure and Parts of the Hair

Each hair grows from a narrow tube in the skin called hair follicle. Each follicle has a tiny oil gland near its base. The gland produces oil that lubricates the hair and softens the skin around it.


Diagram of the structure of the hair



Functions of the Hair

  1. It protects the head
  2. It keeps the head warm in cold weather.
  3. It improves personal appearance and adds beauty to a person.


Types of Hair

  1. Dry hair: This is dry, dull and un-attractive.
  2. Oily or greasy hair: It occurs when the oil glands are over-active and produce more oil than is needed.
  3. Soft hair: This type is often light and can easily be blown about by the wind.
  4. Tough or coarse hair: This is thick and could be difficult to comb or manage.
  5. Short hair: Some people can inherit short hair while others have long hair.
  6. Long hair: This type of hair can also result from heredity, good food and proper care of the hair.


    Care and Grooming of the Hair and Eyes

Grooming involves the maintenance of cleanliness and appearance of the body usually involving skin, hair, etc.

Hair can be cared for by

  1. Washing or shampooing the hair frequently. Short hair can be washed daily while long hair can be washed at least once a week.
  2. Combing or brushing the hair thoroughly to remove dirt and dry scales (dandruff). It also stimulates the circulation of blood and keeps the hair healty.
  3. The hair must be oiled regularly to prevent dryness of the hair and scalp. Excessive dryness could lead to hair damage.

The Eyes

The eye is one of the five sense organs. It is for seeing; and it is very important for normal life; The eye affects the physical appearance.


Structure and Parts of the Eye

The eye is made up of different parts. Each part performs a special function.


Parts of the Eye and Their Functions

  1. The eyebrow – prevents sweat from running down into the eyes.
  2. The eye lashes – protects the eyes from dust and dirt.
  3. The eye lids – can close to protect the eye from foreign objects.
  4. The eye balls – These are the organs of sight. Each is connected to the brain by the sensory nerve called optical nerve.
  5. Cornea – A protective layer which keeps dust and dirt from passing thorough the pupil of the eye.
  6. The iris – The coloured part of eye. It surrounds the pupil. It can increase or decrease the size of the pupil.
  7. The pupil – The hole in front of the eyeball through which light rays pass into the eye.
  8. The lens – A glass-like part of the eye. It focusses the light rays into one spot on the retina thus forming the image.
  9. The retina – A light sensitive spot where image is formed.
  10. Aqueous humour vitreous humour – Both keep the eye ball round. They enable the eye to maintain its shape.
  11. Tear gland – pours out tear over the front of the eye. The tear washes away any dust which enters the eye. 


Diagram of the structure of the eye



Care of the Eye

  1. Use good light when reading or doing any fine work such as sewing. Poor light strains the eye.
  2. Do not rub the eye when you have something in it. 
  3. Do not wash your eyes with disinfectant unless on doctor’s advice.
  4. Do not borrow another person’s face towel for wiping you eyes. 
  5. Do not look directly at an electric light or the sun.
  6. Do not fix eyes to watching television, reading books, writing or sewing for very long periods. Relax the eyes by looking up from time to time. 
  7. Do not hold a book or work too near to the face. This causes a strain on the eyes.
  8. Do not watch television in a completely dark room.
  9. Do not sit too close to the television screen or continually view it lying in front of the set on the floor.
  10. Eat food rich in vitamin A such as carrots.
  11. Have eye-tests by any eye-doctor (optician) if you are already wearing glasses or when you have headaches or sore watering eyes when reading books, or other forms of eye problems.
  12. If you have to wear glasses, do so according to the optician’s instruction, and keep it clean always.

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