SUBJECT: English Language
Topic: Organs of speech
The organs of speech are parts of the human body which are used for speech production.
The lung serves as the power house from which air flows. When we speak, we breathe normally and as the
stream of air flows out from the lungs through the narrow space of the wind-pipe some sounds are produced.
We produce different speech sounds with the help of the vocal cords, the
velum, hard palate, alveolar ridge, teeth, lips and the tongue as the airstream flows from the lungs.
As the airstream flows from the lungs during the production of speech sounds, a special organ
called the larynx modifies the sounds. When the vocal cords are placed edge to edge, the glottis
becomes narrow and when the airstream flow, the vocal cords vibrate. Then voiced sounds are
produced when the vocal cords are drawn apart airstream flows easily. So, the vocal cords do not
vibrate and voiceless sounds are produced.
All the vowels of English are voiced. A consonant sound may be ‘voiced’ or ‘voicedless’
Organs of speech
Reference: Oral English for Schools and Colleges. Pages 1, 2, &3
Topic: Parts of speech: Noun (functions)
What is a Noun?
Of all the parts of speech, nouns are perhaps the most important. A noun is a word that identifies a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Here, we’ll take a closer look at what makes a noun a noun, and we’ll provide some noun examples, along with some advice for using nouns in your sentences.
Identifying a Noun
A noun is a part of speech that denotes a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. The English word noun has its roots in the Latin word nomen, which means “name.” Every language has words that are nouns. As you read the following explanations, think about some words that might fit into each category.
*.Person– A term for a person, whether proper name, gender, title, or class, is a noun.
*.Animal– A term for an animal, whether proper name, species, gender ,or class is a noun.
*.Place– A term for a place, whether proper name, physical location, or general locale is a noun.
*.Thing– A term for a thing, whether it exists now, will exist, or existed in the past is a noun.
*.Idea– A term for an idea, be it a real, workable idea or a fantasy that might never come to fruition is a noun.
Identifying a noun in a sentence
When we first start to learn the parts of speech, trying to identify different words can seem like a challenge. This process gets easier with practice. Here are some noun examples to help you get started. The nouns in each sentence have been italicized.
* Person –He is the person to see.
* Person –John started to run.
* Person – Plato was an influential Greek philosopher.
* Animal – The dog barked at the cat.
* Animal – Elephants never forget.
* Animal – Sophie is my favorite horse.
* Place – The restaurant is opened.
* Place – Let’s go to the beach.
* Place – Harvard and Yale are two famous universities.
* Thing – Throw the ball.
* Thing – Please close the door and lock it.
*.Idea – Follow the rules.
*.Idea – The theory of relativity is an important concept.
TYPES OF NOUNS
A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general, e.g.boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness.
A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing, e.g.Steven, Africa, London, Monday. In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.
A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or tasted. Examples include dog, building, coffee, tree, rain, beach, tune.
An abstract noun is a noun which refers to ideas, qualities, and conditions- things that cannot be seen or touched and things which have no physical reality, e.g .truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour.
Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things, e.g.audience, family, government, team, jury. In American English, most collective nouns are treated as singular, with a singular verb: The whole family was at the table.In British English, the preceding sentence would be correct, but it would also be correct to treat the collective noun as a plural, with a plural verb: The whole family were at the table. A noun may belong to more than one category. For example, happiness is both a common noun and an abstract noun, while Mount Everest is both a concrete noun and a proper noun.
Identify the nouns in the following sentences
* Person – Sharon admires her grandfather.
* Place – Look! There’s the Eiffel Tower.
* Thing – The lamp sits on a table next to the sofa.
* Thing –Money doesn’t grow on trees.
* Person – My mother looks a lot like my grandmother, and I look very much like them.
*Idea –Love is a wonderful emotion.
English Grammar for Junior Secondary Schools. Pages 8 – 10
Topic: Comprehension/vocabulary development.
Content: Unit 1: The Family
Titi tells us about herself and her friend Anochie. Titi and her friend live in Ughelli and attend the same Grammar School at Erhiero. They are both in form 1. Titi’s father is a mechanic and her mother works at home.
Anochie’s father is a teacher and his mother is a nurse.
Practice 2 page 21
Vocabulary – family relationships
Effective English for J.S.S. 1 Pages 24 and 25
Reference: Effective English for J.S.S 1
Composition writing is a process to take. One of the first things to consider is to determine what type of composition to be used. When you are going to write, you usually have a central purpose or central idea in communicating your readers. You also aim to produce some effects to the readers. These purpose or ends is the one that determines the type of discourse that you are going to use in writing a composition.
Types of composition writing
Distinguishing between types of essays is simply a matter of determining the writer's goal. Does the writer want to tell about a personal experience, describe something, explain an issue, or convince the reader to accept a certain viewpoint? The four major types of essays address these purposes.
A narrative essay relates mainly, a sequence of events. It tells what happened and how it happened and is often indistinguishable from a short story.
Characteristics of Narrative Essay.
The Descriptive Essay
This consists of description.
A descriptive essay is one that requires a writer to write a description of an object, a person, an animal, an incident or a scene. In a descriptive essay, the writer should show, not tell, through the use of colorful words and sensory details. The best descriptive essays appeal to the reader’s emotions, with a result that is highly evocative.
Characteristics of a Good Descriptive Essay
* The writer must be orderly in the presentation of facts.
* Clarity of expression is necessary. The use of simple and straight-forward language is required.
* The use of simple present tense is very common but the writer is free to use other tenses as the need arises.
* There must be particular emphasis on objects or things being described. The description must be vivid enough with the use of good and appropriate vocabulary.
* The use of adjective is highly indispensable.
An argumentative essay is the one that requires a writer to present a subject with a view of persuading the reader to agree with the writer’s point of view.
Characteristics of a Good Argumentative Essay.
* The argument must be convincingly presented.
* There must be clarity of expression and the ideas presented must not be disjointed.
* ‘Pro’ arguments should be kept separate from ‘con’ arguments.
* The strongest argument, both on the ‘pro’ side and on the ‘con’ side, should be left to the last.
* Verbosity should be avoided.
An expository essay is the one that requires a writer to write on an exposition or explanation of an idea or how to do or make some thing. The expository essay is an informative piece of writing that presents a balanced analysis of a topic. In an expository essay, the writer explains or defines a topic, using facts, statistics, and examples. Expository writing encompasses a wide range of essay variations, such as the comparison and contrast essay, the cause and effect essay, and the “how to” or process essay. Because expository essays are based on facts and not personal feelings, writers don’t reveal their emotions or write in the first person. The following constitute the areas in which expository essay may feature.
iii. How certain processes are carried out
The explanation might be clean so as not to confuse the reader or audience.
It must contain a vivid explanation of things.
Give a brief explanation of each of the following.
iii. Argumentative essay
Type of essay
English Language communication skills page 103 – 108.
Definition of Literature
Literature is any printed and unprinted materials that instructs, informs, entertains and educates people. Literature is a subject that mirrors people, their customs and traditions for others to see and learn from. In other words, Literature is the caricature of human society and all the activities embedded in it, that is, there is a kind of reciprocal relations between literature and life.
Functions of Literature.
Types of Literature
Oral Literature : Oral literature is a term generally applied to spoken literary traditions such as folk tales, musical theater, proverbs, riddles, life histories, plays, proverbs, epic poems and historical recitations. Unlike written literary genres, oral literature is conveyed or passed down to future generations by word of mouth, typically through memorization and recitation. It is considered a verbal art form.
Dance: the movement of the body in a rhythmic way, usually to music and within a given space, for the purpose of expressing an idea or emotion, releasing energy, or simply taking delight inthe movement itself.
List all the functions of literature
What is literature?
Literature (Definition, purpose)
Essential literature pages 1, 3, and 4
Underline the nouns in the following sentences and state their kind.
English Grammar for JSS 1 pages 91 and 92
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